The switches.ELM resource

Short linear motifs (SLiMs) are compact, degenerate protein interaction interfaces that predominantly occur in intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs). Their intrinsic properties enable them to function as regulatory modules that can mediate switching between distinct functional states of a protein, which allows for context-dependent, integrative regulatory decision-making (Davey et al., 2012) (Van Roey et al., 2012). The switches.ELM database curates experimentally validated motif-based molecular switches, thereby providing a valuable collection of regulatory data that were dispersed in literature. In addition, based on these validated instances, the switches.ELM prediction tool was developed to identify possible switching mechanisms that might regulate a motif-containing protein of interest. Based on the underlying mechanisms, different types and subtypes of motif-based molecular switches were defined, an overview of which can be found on the 'Switch types' page.

The switches.ELM resource was curated and developed by the ELM consortium at the Gibson Team, EMBL Heidelberg and is now hosted by the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL).



The switches.ELM Resource: A Compendium of Conditional Regulatory Interaction Interfaces. Van Roey K, Dinkel H, Weatheritt RJ, Gibson TJ, Davey NE. Science Signaling. 2013 Apr 2;6(269):rs7 ( Published version | Open access)

Further reading

External data resources / tools

IUPred: web server for the prediction of intrinsically unstructured regions of proteins based on estimated energy content. Dosztányi et al., 2005
The Pfam protein families database. Punta et al., 2012
Phospho.ELM: a database of phosphorylation sites--update 2011. Dinkel et al., 2011
PhosphoSitePlus: a comprehensive resource for investigating the structure and function of experimentally determined post-translational modifications in man and mouse. Hornbeck et al., 2012
SMART 6: recent updates and new developments. Letunic et al., 2009
ELM--the database of eukaryotic linear motifs. Dinkel et al., 2012
Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Ashburner et al., 2000
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest: an update. de Matos et al., 2010
The European Nucleotide Archive. Leinonen et al., 2011
InterPro in 2011: new developments in the family and domain prediction database. Hunter et al., 2012
Reorganizing the protein space at the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt). Apweiler et al., 2012
The IntAct molecular interaction database in 2012. Kerrien et al., 2012
The Protein Data Bank. Berman et al., 2000
Reactome: a database of reactions, pathways and biological processes. Croft et al., 2011
Broadening the horizon--level 2.5 of the HUPO-PSI format for molecular interactions. Kerrien et al., 2007


The switches.ELM resource is supported by:

the Systems Biology of Stem Cells and Reprogramming (SyBoSS, No. 242129) grant from the EU-EC Seventh Research Framework Programme (FP7)
the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) consortium
the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)